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Overview

Energy attorneys advise companies through transactions involving the development, acquisition, and disposal of oil, gas, and other energy assets. In addition to normal corporate issues, energy attorneys deal with varied bodies of law, including mineral and property rights, imminent domain, environmental regulation, and sometimes even maritime law (offshore drilling or wind farms). Oil and gas production and pipelines are highly regulated industries, so energy attorneys must keep up on regulations and keep their eyes on complicated rules for every transaction. Increasingly, energy assets have become commoditized, so some lawyers in this area focus on the complicated financial transactions surrounding energy assets, including derivatives, hedges, and swaps. This practice area is heavily focused in Texas, while the more regulatory and financial-oriented areas are in Washington, DC, and New York. Energy companies have large in-house practices, and attorneys in this field can have many in-house opportunities.

Featured Q&A's
Get an insider's view on working in Energy, Oil, & Gas from real lawyers in the practice area.
Sidney Troy Nuñez, Associate
Bracewell LLP

Describe your practice area and what it entails.

I practice in the M&A and general corporate space. I advise strategic and financial sponsors in connection with various transactions involving acquisitions, dispositions, and investments in businesses.

What types of clients do you represent?

We represent a broad range of clients from publicly traded companies to private equity funds and pension investment vehicles, largely—but not exclusively—focused on the energy and infrastructure space. Clients include Phillips 66, Apache Corporation, and Rockland Capital. Our clients include U.S. and non-U.S. companies operating around the world.

What types of cases/deals do you work on?

The type of deals I work on include joint ventures in investment vehicles, acquisitions or dispositions of oil and gas assets or equity interests, and commitments to build out midstream or renewable energy infrastructure, to name a few. The energy and infrastructure space, which forms the basis of our practice, provides experience across a variety of deal types and counterparty dynamics. For example, we recently represented a large public company in the disposition of a business line to an independent sponsor who had successfully raised equity and debt capital to consummate the transaction. The process required creativity and persistence on behalf of both parties to get the deal done, and the structure developed overcame certain obstacles that had been previously viewed as insurmountable.

How did you choose this practice area?

The M&A and corporate advisory practice area is unique in the transactional space in that practitioners are given the opportunity to learn about different subject matter from leaders in their respective fields, which I found appealing. In the process of a business acquisition on the buy side, for example, the buyer will want to investigate various aspects about the target company that it intends to purchase (e.g., employment practices, environmental policies and history, intellectual property rights, any material antitrust dynamics and implications, etc.). It’s the responsibility of the corporate team to liaise with colleagues in the various practice areas, develop an understanding of the opportunities and risks, and present findings to the client or otherwise facilitate the client’s understanding of these matters as seamlessly as possible.

What is a typical day like and/or what are some common tasks you perform?

A few examples include reviewing and revising purchase agreements or NDAs, advising clients on due diligence findings, meeting with counterparties in person to discuss issues in connection with the transaction, or visiting clients’ offices to discuss status or strategy with respect to a particular transaction.

What training, classes, experience, or skills development would you recommend to someone who wishes to enter your practice area?

A few core classes that would benefit an aspiring deal lawyer might include contracts, securities, corporations, bankruptcy, and tax. I would also recommend taking practical negotiation courses (where students are given the opportunity to practice live) and reading the foundational texts (e.g., Getting to Yes). It is also helpful to work as a summer associate within reputable firms in the space, since it can provide a glimpse into the life of a full-time associate and allow a more accurate picture of whether the work would be interesting in the prospective associate’s view.

What do you like best about your practice area?

I enjoy the negotiation and transaction process, and using accumulated legal and deal knowledge. Part of a transaction lawyer’s value-add is their repertoire of past deals, including the experience with issues that have arisen therein, seeing how these were resolved (or how a structure was created to solve for these issues), and using that framework to anticipate and structure around new deal issues or dynamics. It is satisfying to be able to assist in that way, but also to have an understanding of norms throughout the process and be in a position to provide guidance to clients based on your cumulative experience (relative to those norms).

What are some typical tasks that a junior lawyer would perform in this practice area?

The answer to this question can vary significantly from firm to firm. At Bracewell, new associates assist in the organization of the numerous processes and timelines involved and help to manage the work streams across different groups on the team. This might include keeping a catalogue of items completed and those outstanding (usually in the form of a checklist) and also reviewing the deal agreements, both to understand the context in which the various parts come together and to develop their legal judgement. As soon as this baseline is established, juniors are expected to contribute by taking the first cut of documents and interfacing directly with clients.

What kinds of experience can summer associates gain in this practice area at your firm?

Summer associates are given the opportunity to work on projects similar to those that would be assigned to junior associates. This includes helping to organize various items involved in the deal process, reviewing transaction documents, and attending calls with the client and/or counterparty.

What are some typical career paths for lawyers in this practice area?

Focusing within energy allows you to develop unique skills in a critical segment of the economy. A successful energy practice requires a working knowledge not only of oil and gas or renewables, but also of related subject matter, including real property interests and infrastructure systems, for example. The combination of these factors provides a transactional lawyer in the space with a unique value-add, which tends to have a favorable impact on future opportunities (and keeps things interesting). Also, looking forward, while the form of energy and the percentage of such forms’ usage may change, the need for energy (and its acquisition, storage, transportation, and distribution) has and will remain a persistent force in the world economy and, therefore, is a solid foundation upon which to build a career.

Sidney Troy Nuñez, Associate—Business & Regulatory Section, Oil & Gas

Sidney Troy Nuñez counsels Bracewell’s clients on complex business transactions involving upstream, midstream, and downstream oil and gas assets; merchant electric generation facilities; and electric utilities. He represents private equity sponsors, strategic investors, and financial institutions in the structuring and negotiation of joint ventures, leveraged buyouts, public and private mergers, acquisitions and divestitures, and portfolio company matters.

Sidney received his J.D. from Stanford Law School in 2014 and his B.A., magna cum laude, from The University of Texas at Austin in 2011.

Jorge Gutierrez, Partner
Norton Rose Fulbright

Describe your practice area and what it entails.

My practice focuses on advising companies in their development, management, acquisition, and disposition of oil and gas assets. My primary focus is in the upstream and midstream sectors of the energy industry. I assist clients in negotiating all forms of agreements and arrangements that are used to acquire, sell, invest in, develop, and manage oil and gas assets, which include purchase and sale agreements; drilling joint venture agreements; operating agreements; farmout agreements; and transportation, processing, and marketing agreements. Our team also has market-leading experience in the administrative, environmental, regulatory, and tax aspects of energy projects.

What types of clients do you represent?

I represent all types of industry participants: exploration and production companies, pipeline companies,service and supply companies, and investors in those companies. Our clients range in size from global oil and gas companies to smaller independents operating in a single county and every size in between. We also represent individuals and families that own sizable mineral interests throughout Texas. Many of our clients are based in the U.S., but I regularly work with non-U.S. companies whose primary area of operations are in the lower 48. In the past 24 months, I have also worked with clients operating in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, offshore West Africa, and Chile. Collectively, the energy transactions group and other subject matter specialists at our firm have extensive knowledge of and experience working with companies all over the world and across the full value chain of the industry—from the wellhead to the burner tip.

What types of cases/deals do you work on?

I primarily work with companies that own, develop, and/or invest in oil and gas properties in the upstream and midstream sectors of the energy industry. In the past 24 months, I have advised clients on eight drilling joint ventures, where in some cases, our client was the operator/owner of the assets that needed a partner with the capital to develop the assets, and in other cases, our client was a financial investor. During that time, I also assisted clients in several transactions for the acquisition or divestiture of oil and gas leases, wells, and pipeline systems. Once a client has acquired assets, I advise them on matters concerning their operations, such as the negotiation of joint operating agreements, transportation, processing and marketing agreements, and service and supply contracts.

How did you choose this practice area?

Before I became a lawyer, I worked in commercial and investment banking. A considerable amount of my time was spent working with energy companies to raise capital in the bank loan market and executing merger and acquisition transactions. I became so fascinated with the oil and gas industry—how it operates and what it does for the economy—that I was determined to become an oil and gas lawyer. When I graduated from law school, I was fortunate to work with two lawyers that had decades of experience in the industry and were willing to share their knowledge with me.

What is a typical day like and/or what are some common tasks you perform?

Approximately half of the projects I work on involve a non-U.S. client that owns oil and gas assets in the U.S. For the balance, much of it involves domestic clients that are headquartered on the East Coast and in the Rocky Mountains. Since most of these clients are not in my time zone, I work around their schedules. Often, I may be on the phone with a client or responding to their emails early in the morning or late in the evening (or both) in order to accommodate the client’s local-time work schedules. During the rest of the day, I will coordinate with other members of the client’s team in the U.S., talk with opposing counsel in the U.S., and draft the relevant agreements.

What training, classes, experience, or skills development would you recommend to someone who wishes to enter your practice area?

My best piece of advice to anyone who wishes to enter this practice is to commit to reading about and studying the industry. For law school students, I recommend they take all the oil and gas and real property courses their schools have to offer. For everyone else, I suggest they read oil and gas primers. From a conceptual perspective, the industry is generally easy to understand, but beyond that, there are so many aspects that are unique. It makes a tremendous difference when a junior lawyer has a basic familiarity with the upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors of the energy industry and has a general understanding of the terminology and agreements used in the industry.

What do you like best about your practice area?

The people. I like the opportunity to meet individuals (clients and others) who work for oil and gas companies. The upstream and midstream sectors of the energy industry can reward individuals with tremendous financial upside, but it comes with a high degree of risk. Over the years, I have met people who earned sizable fortunes and others who have not done as well. That environment attracts optimists, risk-takers, and people who have an entrepreneurial spirit. I enjoy being around those types of people.

What is unique about your practice area at your firm?

Norton Rose Fulbright has everything a client needs in order to develop, finance, acquire, or dispose of an energy project. We have a deep bench and a breadth of experience that, when coupled with our truly global presence, allows us to comprehensively and seamlessly service our clients. In particular, we have robust capabilities in the commercial, regulatory, and dispute resolution aspects of energy projects, and we are unique among U.S. firms in that we have a strong Canadian and Mexico presence with colleagues that have extensive experience serving energy clients.

What are some typical tasks that a junior lawyer would perform in this practice area?

A lawyer with fewer than two or three years of experience will typically assist in preparing initial drafts and revisions to agreements and other contracts, which will be reviewed and revised by more experienced associates or partners before the document is sent to the client. During negotiations for a transaction, the junior lawyer will be asked to keep notes of all discussions with clients and opposing parties, which will be memorialized in written updates to the client. The junior lawyer will also have the primary responsibility for developing and maintaining a checklist of the documents to be prepared, correspondence to be sent, and steps that must be taken to finalize and close a transaction.

What are some typical career paths for lawyers in this practice area?

It is common to find oil and gas lawyers whose undergraduate degrees were in science or engineering and in fields such as geology and petroleum engineering. More often than not, these individuals worked for a few years in the industry before going to law school. It is also common to find oil and gas lawyers that worked as landmen before law school. Generally, however, many of the oil and gas lawyers I have worked with earned undergraduate business degrees and had little, if any, work experience prior to law school. Although industry experience is helpful, it is not a requirement.

Jorge Gutierrez, Partner—Energy Transactions

Jorge Gutierrez is an energy transactions lawyer who handles complex domestic and international energy matters. He advises oil and gas companies on projects that maximize the value of their assets and investors’ capital. Jorge’s primary focus is working with companies in the upstream and midstream sectors of the energy industry, and his diverse practice includes advising clients in structuring and negotiating terms for acquisition and divestiture projects; drilling joint ventures; farmout arrangements; joint operating agreements; and agreements for the transportation, processing, and marketing of hydrocarbons. Before becoming a lawyer, Jorge worked in commercial and investment banking and corporate finance for 11 years, most of which was devoted to energy finance. Jorge earned his J.D. from Baylor University School of Law in 2007 and his B.B.A from the University of Texas at Austin. He is certified in Oil, Gas and Mineral Law by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization.

Giji John, Partner
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP

Describe your practice area and what it entails.

I focus on project development and financing of energy projects, particularly wind and solar energy projects, although I have worked on any number of different technologies, including natural-gas-fired power plants, liquefied natural gas (LNG), carbon capture and sequestration, natural gas processing facilities, and petrochemical facilities. My work involves negotiating various project-related contracts that support long-term operations and financing for my clients.

What types of clients do you represent?

Most of my clients are project developers. They have included ENGIE, EDP Renewables, Renewable Energy Systems, Pattern Energy, Recurrent Energy, and Cheniere Energy. I also represent large corporates such as Microsoft on its large-scale purchase of renewable energy to meet its sustainability goals.

What types of cases/deals do you work on?

I am fortunate to work on cutting-edge transactions in my field.

Recently I worked with Microsoft to develop new renewable energy contracting structures, known as proxy generation power purchase agreements and volume firming agreements, intended to reduce risk for buyers in corporate power purchase agreements. This structure is intended to expand the corporate and industrial market for renewable energy through innovative provisions that leverage renewable energy, commodity, and financial markets techniques.

I also worked on the multi-phase, multi-billion-dollar project financing of the first LNG export facility in the lower 48 states—Cheniere Energy’s Sabine Pass LNG Liquefaction Facility.

How did you choose this practice area?

I didn’t actually know my practice area existed until I was a summer associate. At that time, I had a vague notion of wanting to do some sort of “transactional work,” not quite knowing what that would entail. I got lucky in that one of my first summer associate projects involved looking at a tax issue for a Pakistani power plant. Narrow issue, but it introduced me to the idea that international project finance was a practice area option. As I did more deals, I got hooked.

What is a typical day like and/or what are some common tasks you perform?

When a deal is at full momentum, we are often reviewing some document or position that the other side’s lawyers have prepared, evaluating it and helping our clients walk through the risks and/or the benefits. So my typical day involves lots of meetings/calls/emails/etc. in the context of negotiating those deal points. My associates do most of the drafting of major documents, and I’ll work with them to get everything the way clients want.

What training, classes, experience, or skills development would you recommend to someone who wishes to enter your practice area?

The most obvious recommendations are secured transactions, tax, and bankruptcy classes. But I would also suggest taking courses from your business school on accounting and finance.

What do you like best about your practice area?

It’s constantly changing. When I started practicing in this practice area, renewable energy was literally non-existent (other than some ’80s-era wind farms in California). Now, renewable energy represents the lion’s share of new electricity projects in the U.S. New technologies constantly change the landscape in energy and enable new deals.

What misconceptions exist about your practice area?

I think the common misconception about transactional lawyers is that we tend to sit, holed up in our offices poring over documents. All lawyers do this at some point, and probably daily. But, at its best, I think project development/finance is one of the more creative practice areas. Especially on deals that have not been done before, or with respect to new products/technologies that we are pushing to market, we are working with clients, financing institutions, and sometimes governmental institutions in order to build out the legal framework of how to do something new. That takes a lot of emotional intelligence, the ability to think on your feet, and good argument skills. I liken it to arguing in front of a very active moot court panel.

How do you see this practice area evolving in the future?

There is a convergence happening between the energy industry and technology. Examples include how electric cars help stabilize the electric grid and the use of blockchain to enable residential solar. So, what lawyers do and our practice areas will probably also converge. I already see this a lot at Orrick. We focus on the technology and innovation, energy and infrastructure, and finance sectors, and we often work across teams to help our clients with matters related to this convergence.

For those considering corporate work, why would you advise them to specialize in energy, oil, and gas?

There is no shortage of energy work—whether that is in oil and gas extractive industries, conventional electricity, or renewable energy. And, most of the largest law firms have, or want to have, significant exposure to that work. They are falling over themselves trying to grab associates. And since the deals are inherently very complicated, associates have meaningful and challenging work on day one.

Giji John, Partner—Energy & Infrastructure

Giji John’s practice focuses on the development and finance of domestic and international energy projects. He has extensive experience representing project sponsors through development, acquisitions and dispositions, joint ventures, and financings. His representation has included transactions involving LNG facilities, methanol facilities, petrochemical refineries, carbon capture and sequestration facilities, natural gas processing and storage facilities, natural gas and CO2 pipelines, wind energy, solar energy, natural gas-fired peaking and combined-cycle power plants, thermal and battery energy storage, transportation, aviation, and ports.

Christopher Richardson, Partner
White & Case LLP

Describe your practice area and what it entails.

My practice includes advising energy companies, governments, and investors on transactions involving oil and gas assets, liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects, energy infrastructure assets (such as pipelines and plants), chemical and petrochemical projects, and related corporate and commercial matters on a global basis. Over my career, whether I have been based abroad or in the U.S., much of my work has been cross-border in nature, and even though I am now based in Houston, I often work on deals overseas or involving international players.

What types of clients do you represent?

I work with a wide variety of clients who are active in the oil and gas industry, including national oil companies, sovereign wealth funds, major international oil companies, smaller independent oil companies, commodities trading companies, petrochemical companies, private equity and infrastructure funds, banks, developers and project sponsors, operating companies, oilfield service companies, and foreign governments (for example, I am currently representing the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago with respect to their LNG export project).

What types of cases/deals do you work on?

My work generally falls into three primary areas of practice: (1) acquisitions and divestitures of oil and gas properties and of energy and infrastructure assets; (2) strategic joint ventures, which involve structuring two or more energy companies, investors, and/or governmental entities joining together to own and operate assets and entails complicated corporate governance and corporate finance issues; and (3) project development work, which entails drafting and negotiating the complex web of contracts that underpins large projects, including supply and offtake agreements, operations and maintenance agreements, construction contracts, marketing agreements, host-country agreements with foreign governments, etc. Examples of my acquisitions and divestiture include experience representing Vitol, Inc. in its acquisition of the North American oil trading business of Noble for US$1.4 billion and helping Hilcorp Energy acquire more than US$2 billion worth of natural gas properties in New Mexico from ConocoPhillips. Examples of my project development work include representing the operator in the structuring and development of the Gladstone LNG project in Queensland, Australia, and advising Reliance Industries in India on the development of their cross-continental pipeline. In many of my deals, there is also a joint venture aspect, where a company or partnership is formed to buy, own, or operate the assets that are the subject of the M&A deal or of the project development work I am doing.

How did you choose this practice area?

I wanted to practice internationally and had an interest in spending at least a portion of my career as an expatriate. Fifteen years ago, oil and gas work out of Houston, Texas, was one of the best ways to pursue those objectives. It still is a good career path for international work, but other opportunities (international arbitration, for example) exist now for law students interested in working globally. I am from Louisiana, so Texas was attractive for cultural reasons as well. Since I started my career at a Houston firm in 2004, I have lived in Hong Kong (for six years) and Abu Dhabi (as a general counsel for a sovereign wealth fund’s oil and gas company), as well as three stints in Houston. Over that time, I have worked on matters involving clients, counterparties, projects, or targets located in more than 50 countries across the Americas, Asia-Pacific, Africa, Australia, Europe, and the Middle East, with much of that work focused on developing markets (such as India, China, Brazil, Indonesia, Russia, Oman, Egypt, etc.).

What is a typical day like and/or what are some common tasks you perform?

Much of my time is spent reviewing, drafting, and negotiating complex contracts for the purchase and sale or development of energy infrastructure assets and projects. Some of the major projects may contain dozens of contracts running into the thousands of pages. All of those contracts have to work together, and each is typically heavily negotiated (sometimes over the span of several years). In other instances, such as an upstream asset purchase in an auction situation, there may only be one or two key documents (the purchase and sale agreement, for instance), and the deal may take place over the course of just months instead of years, but there may also be substantial legal due diligence to review on the underlying assets or target company. In many overseas upstream oil and gas deals, the work may also involve negotiations with foreign governments. Another key aspect of the work is that you have to be commercial—we often find ourselves leading the overall negotiations for our clients, and that includes helping our clients achieve their business objectives as well as their legal goals. I find that aspect of the practice most interesting—you are often acting as a business consultant as much as a lawyer. In any case, to be successful in this practice, you have to understand the underlying assets or projects, so you get to know the energy industry quite well over the course of a career in this practice.

What training, classes, experience, or skills development would you recommend to someone who wishes to enter your practice area?

If your law school offers classes on oil and gas, that is a helpful introduction—but not critical if you do not have that on offer at your law school. Other good classes include those on international transactions or emerging markets transactions, M&A, sales of goods, and corporate law generally. Additionally, consider joining—as a student member—the Association of International Pet-roleum Negotiators (AIPN) and the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation. Both of these institutions host a number of events and prepare key industry publications, and both welcome students (and for a discounted membership cost).

What is the most challenging aspect of practicing in this area?

You rarely do the same deal twice. Many of our transactions are bespoke, and as such, you cannot rely as much upon precedents or documents from prior deals. This makes a lot of lawyers uncomfortable, since many attorneys prefer to work on similar matters over and over again in order to become experts in one type of transaction or practice area. That’s very hard to do in a global oil and gas practice, where each deal is unique and you are often working on projects that have never been done before, or are being done by a rather idiosyncratic client. Another challenge is the unpredictability of travel—I often don’t know whether I will be in some faraway country next month or next week, or how long I will be away (but that is because my practice and law firm are particularly internationally focused—sometimes oil and gas lawyers in the U.S. rarely travel overseas, depending on the nature of their practice).

What do you like best about your practice area?

You rarely do the same deal twice! While this is also a challenge, it is my favorite part of the practice. You have to be creative, flexible, and commercially minded, and you have to think outside the box. You develop an expertise in the industry more than in any particular type of deal. I also love the travel, although it is a bit unpredictable at times. Another great thing about the practice is that the scale and scope of the work means that your work as a lawyer is highly valued—because the deals are so complicated and large (many of my deals are more than US$1 billion in value), and because the client’s long-term success depends largely on the terms of the contracts that you are drafting and negotiating, outside counsel often plays a central and critical role in the deal or project (more so than in many other types of transactional or corporate work).

What is unique about your practice area at your firm?

White & Case is unique among law firms in the breadth and depth of its coverage of oil and gas matters. Geographically, the firm operates not only in major energy, government, and financial capitals—such as Houston, New York, Washington, DC, London, and Singapore—but also in emerging markets—such as Moscow, Beijing, Abu Dhabi, Riyadh, Doha, São Paulo, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Istanbul, Mexico City, Johannes-burg, Cairo, etc. (with 45 worldwide offices in total). We also have a deep and varied bench of specialists in all of the key practices relevant to the oil and gas industry: project finance and development, construction, private equity, mergers & acquisitions, international arbitration, white collar and compliance, regulatory and environmental law, bankruptcy, real estate, competition and antitrust, etc. I do not think there is a firm better placed to serve the needs of the global oil and gas industry than White & Case.

How do you see this practice area evolving in the future?

The shale revolution in the last decade in the U.S. has already greatly altered the oil and gas industry and shifted much attention to the U.S. market, but change is constant in this particular practice group. Geopolitics and technical innovations will continue to play a pivotal role as well, making it even harder to predict the future of the practice. The dynamics of the oil and gas market are always fluid and unpredictable, which makes a career in this area of law interesting and exciting. You have to be adaptable. I expect for at least another generation, the world will be dependent on fossil fuels for transportation and energy generation (and will likely always need petrochemicals), but the energy mix is changing—moving away from oil and into more natural gas. Natural gas is abundant and versatile and produces substantially less CO2 and pollution than coal or crude oil products. LNG project development, for example, has become a major part of my practice. Because of the abundance of natural gas in the U.S. as a result of the shale revolution, we are also seeing more activity in the chemicals and petrochemicals industry, where natural gas is often used as a feedstock or key component. Many of our clients are also investing more heavily in renewables and alternative energy, and no doubt, those of us with oil and gas practices will continue to move with them.

Christopher Richardson, Partner—Project Development and Finance

Chris Richardson is a global energy transactions lawyer who focuses his practice on domestic and cross-border acquisitions and divestitures; strategic joint ventures; project development and construction; energy and commodities trading transactions; commercial and operational agreements for upstream, midstream, downstream, petrochemical, LNG, and other energy and infrastructure projects; and general corporate matters.

Chris regularly provides counsel to independent E&P companies, national oil companies, oil majors, trading companies, oilfield service companies, project sponsors, private equity funds (and their portfolio companies), strategic investors, and sovereign wealth funds in relation to deal structuring, investment risks, joint venture management, dispute resolution, operational and commercial matters, new country entry, and relations with host-country governments.

Chris has advised clients on conventional and unconventional oil and gas, petrochemical, and LNG transactions and projects throughout the United States, as well as in dozens of foreign jurisdictions, including across the Middle East, Latin America, Asia (with particularly deep experience in India, China, and Southeast Asia), Africa, Russia and Central Asia, Europe, and Australia. He has also advised clients on mining, chemicals, power, and manufacturing-related projects and transactions worldwide.

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