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Genetic engineers experiment with altering, splicing, eliminating, and rearranging genes to obtain specific results. They use a variety of techniques such as mutagenesis, transposon insertions, selective breeding, and recombinant DNA technology to alter the genetic material of cells. The goal of such genetic modification is to make cells perform new functions, produce new substances, or block the production of a particular substance. The work of genetic engineers and scientists has resulted in many breakthroughs, including the discovery and production of insulin and interferon, which are used to treat diseases like diabetes and leukemia. Genetic engineering successes have also been seen in agricultural science. Agricultural triumphs like hybrid corn, disease-resistant grains, and higher quality livestock are all products of the principles of recombinant DNA and cloning. The following paragraphs detail some of the areas in which genetic engineers specialize. Some genetic engineers may work in more than one area.
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