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Ethnoscientist is a broad term that covers various specialties, such as ethnoarchaeology, ethnobiology, ethnomusicology, ethnoveterinary medicine, and ethnozoology. Ethnoscientists study a particular subject, usually a social or life science, (e.g., archaeology, biology, veterinary medicine, or zoology) from the perspective of one or more cultural groups.
Ethnoscientists are usually Western practitioners who are interested in exploring the knowledge, beliefs, traditions, and practices of cultures in non-industrialized areas of the world, such as the Maoris of New Zealand, the Shona of south-central Africa, or the Inuit of Alaska. These cultures have unique, often undocumented, ways of perceiving, interacting with, and understanding each other and their environment. Ethnoscientists study these cultures to record and learn from their perspectives.