Ethnoscientists generally perform the same or similar duties as their counterparts in the traditional sciences, but from the perspective of the knowledge and belief systems of a particular indigenous group or culture. Not only do ethnoscientists conduct research in their particular area of study, but they immerse themselves in the culture and talk to the inhabitants to find out about, for example, the local knowledge and use (medicinally or otherwise) of plants (ethnobotanist or ethnopharmacologist), the local use of language (ethnolinguist), or the local use of implements, utensils, tools, or other items (ethnoarchaeologists). Ethnoscientists classify information based on traditional methods and concepts while at the same time drawing on linguistic and cognitive theories.

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