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Environmental scientists use physical science (such as biology, chemistry, and geology) and social science (including conservation and resource management) to study and assess the environment in relation to the impact human activity has on it as well as damage incurred through natural interactions. Their work is also used to ensure environmental laws and regulations are being met and to help prevent violations before they occur. Environmental scientists specialize in various areas such as air, soil, and water, and use different tools and software programs to collect and study samples. They work for federal, state, and local environmental protection agencies, as well as private sector companies, and teach in colleges and universities. There are approximately 84,240 environmental scientists employed in the United States.