Most dentists are general practitioners, but almost 15 percent practice as specialists. The largest number of these specialists are orthodontists, followed by oral surgeons, pedodontists, periodontists, prosthodontists, endodontists, oral pathologists, and public health dentists.

General practitioners must be proficient in many areas of dentistry. They not only must handle routine treatments, such as cleaning teeth, extracting teeth, and filling cavities, but must also be on the alert for any condition in the mouth requiring special treatment, such as crooked teeth, diseased gums, and oral cancer. General practitioners must be able to use and understand X-rays and be well acquainted with laboratory work.

Specialists devote their time and skills to specific dental problems. Orthodontists correct irregularities in the development of teeth and jaws by means of braces and similar devices. Oral surgeons perform difficult tooth extractions, remove tumors from the gums or jaw, and set jaw fractures. Pedodontists specialize in the care and treatment of children's teeth. Periodontists treat diseased gums and other tissues that support the teeth. Prosthodontists design, construct, and fit dental prosthetics. Endodontists specialize in diseases of the tooth pulp. Oral pathologists examine and diagnose tumors and lesions of the mouth. Public health dentists work through public health agencies to treat and educate the public on the importance of dental health and care.

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