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Cores are used in manufacturing metal castings that have hollow centers, such as pipes and tubes. The core establishes the open area in the object. Cores for almost any metal casting are produced using the same basic procedures. Cores may be large or small, and can be made by hand or by machine. Bench coremakers, for example, work at benches making smaller cores, usually by hand. In contrast, floor coremakers make large cores on the floor of a foundry.