Teva Pharmaceutical Industries is the biggest name in the no-name world of generic pharmaceuticals. The company makes hundreds of generic versions of brand-name antibiotics, heart drugs, heartburn medications, and more. Headquartered in Israel, Teva is the world's largest generic medicines maker, using its portfolio of more than 1,000 molecules to produce generics in nearly every therapeutic area. In specialty medicines, Teva is a leader in making innovative treatments for disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as respiratory products. The company operates in two segments: generics (which accounts for about half of sales) and specialty medicines.
Generic medicines produced by Teva include chemical and therapeutic versions of a tablets, capsules, injectables, inhalants, liquids, ointments, and creams. Specialty medicines include Copaxone, Azilect, Nuvigil, ProAir HFA, and QVAR. In addition to focusing on CNR and respiratory therapies, Teva also provides specialty medicines in the areas of oncology, women's health, and others.
Teva also participates in a joint venture with Procter & Gamble. It owns 49% of the venture, named PGT Healthcare, which makes over-the-counter drugs. P&G brought big consumer health brand names to the venture (including Pepto Bismol and Vicks), while Teva brought international manufacturing and regulatory expertise. The company also has a collaboration with Takeda Pharmaceutical, through which Takeda can commercialize Teva's treatments for Parkinson's disease (Copaxone) and multiple sclerosis (Azilect) in Japan.
The company also supplies active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), the essential raw materials used in drug manufacturing.
Teva holds a portfolio of more than 1,000 molecules; it produces some 64 billion tablets and capsules annually at its 66 manufacturing facilities. Its pipeline includes about 20 products in phase II or III.
While Teva has research and manufacturing operations in more than 60 countries in the Americas, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, more than half of the company's sales come from its US operations.
In 2014, the US accounted for 45% of Teva's generic revenues, while Europe accounted for 32%.
Sales and Marketing
Teva's finished product are sold directly to retailers and medical providers, as well as through wholesale distribution firms.
Advertising expenses for 2014 totaled $302 million, down from $321 million in 2013 and $337 million in 2012.
Teva's revenue has been relatively flat at around $20.3 billion since fiscal 2012. In 2014 revenue decreased by less than one percent to $20.3 billion, as declines in generics occurred. In Europe, regulatory measures such as price reductions impacted earnings. However, US operations saw growth due to the release of new generics.
Net income had been on a decline until 2014, when it more than doubled to $3.1 billion thanks to income from legal settlements (related to the settlement of pantoprazole patent litigation) as well as a reduction in selling and marketing expenses. Cash flow from operations rose 58% to $5.1 billion due to lower payments for legal settlements and Israeli tax settlements, among other factors.
Continuing growth strategies include expansion efforts in emerging markets and increasing its portfolio in over-the-counter medicines. Teva continues with its historical strategy of filing patent challenges on branded products, thus attempting to gain a "first-to-market" advantage with its generic equivalents; however, in recent years these patent challenges have grown more expensive and less exclusive, which has eroded their usefulness.
Lingering impacts from acquisition expenses, as well as the patent expiration of top-selling branded drug Copaxone, prompted Teva to launch a cost control program in 2013 to cut $2 billion in annual expenses by 2017. The program includes a 10% workforce reduction; the first such downsizing program in the company's history. In 2015 it agreed to sell its facility in Sellersville, Pennsylvania, to G&W Laboratories to cut excess manufacturing capacity and cut costs.
Perhaps in response to losing exclusivity of its Copaxone, Teva made an unsolicited $40 billion bid for generics rival Mylan in mid-2015. Mylan had just made its own unsolicited offer to purchase Perrigo for some $29 billion; either deal would be among the largest of the year. However, Teva subsequently dropped its plans to buy Mylan; instead, it agreed to buy the generics business of Allergan for some $40.5 billion. In another deal to build its portfolio, Teva agreed to form a joint venture with top Japanese firm Takeda Pharmaceutical. Takeda will gradually transfer its generics business to the venture (which will be 51%-owned by Teva) as it focuses more heavily on developing new drugs. That venture allows Teva to expand in Japan, a nation it has targeted for years.
After regulatory compliance expenses pinched the company's animal health business in 2011, Teva sold off those operations to Bayer HealthCare in early 2013 in a deal worth up to $145 million. The business included dermatology and food products for companion animals.
In 2015 Teva plans to launch inhalation powder ProAir RespiClick in the US. It did launch a generic version of Exforge tablets, which treat high blood pressure, as well as Lovenox, both in the US. In 2014 the company introduced psychiatric drug Adasuve.
Mergers and Acquisitions
Acquisitions around the globe have helped the company enter new markets and secure market dominance in others. In 2014 Teva acquired biotech company Labrys Biologics, which is focused on migraine treatments, for $207 million.
The company now plans to buy California-based Auspex Pharmaceuticals, which is developing drugs for central nervous system disorders including Huntington's disease and Tourette's syndrome, for some $3.2 billion. It is also buying US-based private software firm Gecko Health Innovations, which makes products that alert respiratory patients when it's time to take their medicine.
And in yet another deal aimed at growing its emerging market operations, Teva acquired Mexico-based drugmaker Representaciones e Investigaciones Médicas SA (more simply known as Rimsa) for $2.3 billion in 2016. That purchase makes Teva one of Mexico's top pharmaceutical firms.