The National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its own research and the distribution of grants, seeks to understand disease inside and out. Part of the US Department of Health and Human Services, NIH is the government's main medical research entity. It comprises 27 institutes and centers covering every medical discipline, from general medical sciences to alternative therapies. The organization has some 6,000 scientists of its own and gives out thousands of grants to researchers at more than 2,500 universities, hospitals, and research labs in all 50 states. Among its vast array of projects, NIH has supported efforts to develop an AIDS vaccine, map human genetic variation, and study avian flu.
The institution's main campus is in Bethesda, Maryland. NIH also has facilities in the Rockville, Maryland area and the NCI Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center at Fort Detrick in Frederick. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences' main facility is located in Research Triangle Park in North Carolina. Other laboratory facilities include the NIH Animal Center in Poolesville, Maryland; the National Institute on Aging's Gerontology Research Center in Baltimore; the Division of Intramural Research of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, (also in Baltimore); and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases' Rocky Mountain Laboratories in Hamilton, Montana.
NIH also conducts scientific training programs for researchers, as well as public outreach programs seeking to engage and educate US citizens on public health issues. Its research programs link scientists with community organizations to ensure that research programs are working to meet the prominent health care needs of communities throughout the US. The organization also encourages small businesses to get into the research game through the HHS Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.
The Administration’s FY 2015 budget request for the NIH is $30.4 billion, 0.7% above the FY 2014 level. The request highlights investments in innovative research that will advance fundamental knowledge and speed the development of new therapies, diagnostics, and preventive measures to improve public health. The FY 2015 budget request will enhance NIH’s ability to support cutting-edge research and training of the scientific workforce. NIH expects to support 9,326 new and competing Research Project Grants (RPGs) in FY 2015, an increase of 329 over 2014s. For FY 2015, NIH anticipates funding a total of 34,197 RPGs.
The NIH invests more than $30 billion each year in medical research. Its primary goals are to foster innovative research strategies and their applications as a basis for ultimately protecting and improving the nation's health and expand the knowledge base in medical and associated sciences. Its largest areas of research funding include aging, biotechnology and bioengineering, cardiovascular care, cancer, diabetes, genetics, infectious disease, mental health, neurology, pediatrics, substance abuse, vaccines, and women's health.
The NIH spends 80% of its annual budget on external research grants to some 300,000 researchers at institutions across the US, as well as international locations. The remainder is spent on its internal programs, conducted through its Intramural Research Laboratories. Most of the IRL's work is conducted at NIH's 300-acre main campus in Bethesda, Maryland, which includes the facilities of the NIH Clinical Center, the largest clinical research-dedicated hospital in the world.
The organization has launched a major initiative to improve how basic science advances and discoveries are translated into commercially viable products that improve patient care and advance public health. In 2014 it opened the John Edward Porter Neuroscience Research Center, which brings together neuroscientists from 10 institutes and centers across the NIH in an effort to spur new advances the study of the nervous system in health and disease.
In 2013 the NIH launched three innovative projects that will focus on development of therapeutics for Fragile X syndrome, nicotine addiction, and age-related macular degeneration. These projects are funded through the NIH Blueprint Neurotherapeutics Network which provides access to a variety of drug development resources.
Throughout 2011 and 2012 the NIH was focused on the improvement of diabetes treatments, the prevention of obesity, and the delivery of improved therapies to patients with rare blood cancers. It also conducted research on climate change to determine which populations are more susceptible to diseases caused by the weather change.
The history of the NIH began in an agency created in 1887 by the federal government to check ship passengers coming into the country for signs of cholera and yellow fever. The NIH's predecessor, known as the Laboratory of Hygiene, used newfangled bacteriological methods to study infectious diseases in service of the public health.